CHERRY GROVE, N.Y. Decades before the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, lesbians and gay men were living freely and openly in a place called Cherry Grove.
The seaside resort on Fire Island, about 60 miles east of Manhattan, was known as far back as the late 1940s as a sanctuary where gay writers, actors and businesspeople from the city and beyond escaped to relax, hold hands and show affection in public.
"It's probably one of the earliest examples of 'don't ask, don't tell,' " Carl Luss said after learning in June that the Cherry Grove Community House and Theater, opened in 1948, had been added to the National Register of Historic Places. The theater was cited for being the oldest continuously operating gay and lesbian theater in the United States.
"The message is, we have arrived, finally," said Diane Romano, president of the Cherry Grove Community Association.
"We remember when we could be arrested just for being gay," Romano said. "To now be applauded and to be allowed to marry and to be recognized by the government for being a gay theater for so many years is just thrilling. It's thrilling."
Cherry Grove is one of 17 hamlets and villages on the 30-mile-long barrier island five miles off the southern shore of Long Island.
Virtually obliterated in a 1938 hurricane, the community now has about 250 houses that can sell for $400,000 or more. Two miles of white, sandy beaches facing the Atlantic are accessible via a network of narrow boardwalks. Denizens either walk or get around on golf carts; no cars are permitted in most Fire Island communities.
"By the nature of its isolation and beauty, it became a safe haven for gay people, where they could not be afraid of repercussions from work, or anger from their families about being gay," said Thom "Panzi" Hansen, president of the Cherry Grove Arts Project. He and others noted there were occasional raids in which police would enforce laws prohibiting same-sex dancing or ticket people for lewd behavior, but largely because the island was so isolated from the mainland, they were generally left alone.
Notable Cherry Grove visitors and residents have included poet W.H. Auden; playwright Tennessee Williams; author Truman Capote; actresses Nancy Walker, Tallulah Bankhead and Hermione Gingold; comedian Kaye Ballard; and New Yorker journalist Janet Flanner.
Residents sought landmark status for the Community House and Theater to jump-start interest in funding a renovation of the barnlike 151-seat structure.
It is only the third gay rights landmark to get the federal designation, joining the Stonewall, where gays clashed with the New York Police Department for three days in 1969 over harassment, leading to the modern gay rights movement, and the Washington, D.C., home of Dr. Franklin E. Kameny, who became a gay rights activist after he was fired from his job with the Army Map Service in 1957 for refusing to answer questions about his sexual orientation.
The walls of the theater's basement dressing room feature autographs of many of the performers who called the stage their temporary home.
"It was a secret hidden in the open," said Luss, who wrote the application for landmark status. "Everybody sort of knew they were all on the same page and as long as there wasn't, you know, ultra behavior, people were satisfied."
Gay visitors would and still do catch a Long Island Rail Road train in Manhattan for the 75-minute trip to Sayville and slowly begin to relax.
Once they got on a ferry for a 20-minute ride across Great South Bay to Cherry Grove, "personalities changed. The uptightness just began to fall off. You would see men start to chat with each other and laugh and smile," said Jack Dowling, who began visiting Cherry Grove as a teenager in the 1950s and now, at age 80, lives there.
Once on Fire Island, they would hold hands and kiss as they walked through town, Dowling said. Others dressed in drag for celebrations such as an annual baseball game on the beach.
With acceptance of gays and lesbians evolving to the point where the Supreme Court has granted federal benefits to gay couples who are legally married, Romano and others say Cherry Grove where visitors are greeted by oversize American and gay liberation flags fluttering in the wind is more than ever seen as a comfortable place for gays and straights to visit for the day, a weekend or all summer.
Troy Files, who has been coming to Cherry Grove for about seven years, said people will always be attracted to what he called "a gay and lesbian Mayberry RFD."
"You can be gay in the middle of Pennsylvania and be safe now," Files said. "But for us, it's a hidden jewel. We're all here to have fun. The theme of Cherry Grove is 'unity in the community,' and it truly shows."